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Human coronaviruses, usually cause mild to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses, like the common cold. Human coronaviruses can sometimes cause lower-respiratory tract illnesses, such as pneumonia or bronchitis. This is more common in people with cardiopulmonary disease, people with weakened immune systems, infants, and older adults. Common human coronaviruses can be transmitted between humans through respiratory droplets that infected people expel when they breathe, cough or sneeze.   The viruses generally cannot survive for more than a few hours on surfaces outside a human host, but people can pick up a coronavirus from a contaminated surface for a short window of time.

Multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) MRSA is found in the throat, nasal cavity, skin, cuts, and wounds. These pathogens cause food poisoning normally by foods that have been processed by food handlers who have skin infections or those with the bacteria in their nose; it is more commonly found in foods involving manual processing and foods that haven’t been reheated afterward (e.g., sandwiches, bakery, etc.). Other sources of food contamination include food preparation utensils and work areas. Common symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever. The bacteria may lead to infections of the skin, urinary tract, wounds, and lungs. If you fail to receive proper treatment in a timely fashion, serious fatal complications may occur, such as dehydration, septicemia, necrosis, and fasciitis, etc.

Escherichia coli (Escherichia or E. coli) E. coli mainly inhabit the large intestine of warm-blooded animals and can be spread into many natural ecological environments with the discharge of the host. Once E. coli leave the host’s intestine, it is usually eliminated and dies. Fecal mouth infection is the main route of infection of pathogenic strains. When bacteria leave the intestine and enters the urinary tract, it can cause infection; when bacteria enter the abdominal cavity due to perforations caused by ulcers, etc., it usually leads to fatal peritonitis infection. Certain strains of E. coli are toxic (some of which resemble toxins that cause dysentery). Eating contaminated meat can cause food poisoning (usually due to contamination during slaughter, storage, and sales, or the food is not fully cooked). The severity of the disease can vary widely, especially for children, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients.

Salmonella are pervasive in hospitals, schools, nursing homes, and many other gathering places. The pathogens are often found in domestic and wild animals. They are common in food animals (e.g., poultry, pig, and cattle) and pets such as cats, dogs, and turtles. Salmonella is a common pathogenic virus that causes food poisoning in foods like raw meat, poultry, non-sterilised milk, and raw eggs/egg products. Common symptoms include vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and fever. If proper treatment is not sought, serious fatal complications (dehydration and septicaemia) although rare may occur.

Legionella can cause Legionnaires' disease; it exists in a variety of environments, especially in warm water at 20-45 degrees Celsius or 68-113 degrees Fahrenheit. It can survive in different water sources, such as water tanks, hot and cold water systems, hot tubs, water fountains, and home respiratory medical equipment. Patients can become infected by inhaling contaminated water and mist or dealing with garden soil and compost. Men, seniors (especially over 50 years old), smokers, alcoholics, chronically ill patients (such as cancer, diabetes, chronic lung disease or kidney disease), and those with weakened immunity have a higher risk of illness. The incubation period is about 2-10 days. The main symptoms include fever, dry cough, difficulty breathing, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. In severe cases, neurological symptoms (such as delirium), respiratory failure, and death can occur. Some patients infected with Legionella may only have short-term and spontaneous fever symptoms. This type of non-pneumonic condition is called "Pontiac fever.”

H1N1 stands for hemagglutinin type 1 and neuraminidase type 1. It is composed of the genetic material of human and swine avian influenza. The H1N1 novel influenza virus is a disease infected in pigs and is related to the influenza A virus. Influenza A H1N1 virus can be transmitted through droplets and contact infection, with an incubation period of half a day to three days, and up to seven days. Patients with Influenza A H1N1 flu may have a high fever (above 37.8°C or 100.04°F), headache, systemic muscle aches, joint pain, obvious fatigue, cough, sore throat, and nasal congestion. 25% of patients have diarrhea, vomiting, and dysentery symptoms.


Listeria is common in the natural environment (such as soil or water). It can also be found in contaminated and uncooked foods such as vegetables, raw meat, and milk that has not been pasteurized. Processed foods such as soft cheeses and frozen meats may also be contaminated during preparation. Listeria can survive in low-temperature environments and reproduce in contaminated frozen food. The cooking process can kill listeria. If a woman is pregnant, the bacteria can also be passed from the mother through the placenta to the fetus or the birth canal to the newborn baby. The incubation period is about 3 to 70 days, and symptoms usually appear 3 weeks after infection. Patients usually have a fever, headache, and sometimes gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Some people may experience serious complications such as meningoencephalitis or sepsis. Pregnant women, newborn babies, the elderly, chronically ill patients or people with weakened immune systems are at higher risk of infection.